Xenophobia in South Africa 2022 Research Report

In the first half of 2022, the extent of xenophobic content related to South Africa on social media increased. The most prominent hashtag in the conversation, #OperationDudula, is characterized by a negative sentiment directed toward foreigners. It appears that this may be a coordinated influence operation. On Nimmo’s breakout scale for measuring the impact of influence operations, it can be considered a category six breakout – the most extreme – in that there is both a policy response that appears to be persuaded and a call for violence.

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